Lithography is a printing process that uses a flat stone, metal plate, or polymer sheet on which the image is worked using a greasy substance so that oil-based ink will adhere to it. While the image is transferred to paper using a press, the non-image areas - which have special hydrophilic properties - are kept damp in order to repel the ink. I use lithography to introduce fine lines, text or photographs into my work.
The term hybrid print indicates a combination of two or more of printmaking techniques and may also include the application of materials by hand. Water-based and oil-based inks may be in the same print. If a print is made using only one technique it may nevertheless have several layers (impressions) and even both types of ink. If additional materials are drawn, painted, or otherwise added, these details are noted.
Relief printing is a family of printing methods using a block as the matrix for the repeatable image. Areas of the block can be carved away or otherwise removed. When ink is applied to its surface and the block is pressed to paper, the recessed areas of the block leave no ink on the paper, while ink is transferred from surface to paper. Relief printing is a direct technique that can yield bold graphic results.
Mokuhanga is a branch of relief printing in which water-based pigment is applied with soft brushes to wood, then transferred to paper by hand using a baren. The woodblock is often hand-carved with gouges. The technique has deep roots in the Japanese ukiyo-e tradition, which peaked in the early 19th century. Since the turn of the 21st century, the practice of mokuhanga has become an international movement. Attentiveness and sensitivity to materials is a key requirement.
Chine colle is method of simultaneously printing and gluing. The paper being printed on is very thin. Glue that is applied to the back side of the paper bonds it to a substrate (heavier paper) as they undergo pressure.